Review: Rudolf Bultmann

27792023David W. Congdon is associate editor at IVP Academic. Congdon has a Ph.D. in Systematic Theology from Princeton Theological Seminary and is the author of the massive tome The Mission of Demythologizing: Rudolf Bultmann’s Dialectical Theology (Fortress Press, 2015), and a number of articles related to Rudolf Bultmann, his thought, theology, and relationships. In many ways, Congdon has positioned himself as the ideal candidate for the present volume in the Cascade Companions series, Rudolf Bultmann: A Companion to His Theology (Cascade, 2015).

Rudolf Bultmann is arguably one of the most important theological thinkers of the nineteenth century, if not the most important. He is a notoriously perplexing intellectual, despite his influence having penetrated nearly corner of the theological globe. Still, today, Rudolf Bultmann remains negatively characterized by many. Unfortunately, as Congdon rightly articulates in his introduction, most that have formulated such characterizations about Bultmann have done so without first seeking to understand the man within his educational and theological context. In other words, while disagreement with Bultmann may be valid and significant, it is important to remember that Bultmann was an intellectual mind birth within a historical context that shaped his thought—for better or worse. It is here that Congdon rightly positions the investigation into the theology of Rudolf Bultmann.

Congdon enters into the conversation quickly and constructs a proper historical framework for the reader to better understand the later and more mature Bultmannian thought. Congdon does well in setting the stage, introducing the players, and identifying how an eschatological foundation became the launch-pad of traditionally recognized Bultmannian thought. By starting with Bultmann’s eschatological dilemma, Congdon rightly sets the pace for the reader in seeing Bulman as a man wrestling with theological issues of his day and better positions the conversation around the issue pertaining to dialectical theology, kerygma, myth, and Bultmannian hermeneutics among other themes.

It would be beyond scope here to interact with everything Congdon has done in his examination and presentation of Bultmann’s theology, but a few highlights are worth mentioning. First, as stated above, Congdon has rightly positioned the reader to better understand and interact with Bultmann. He hasn’t cleared all the mud from the water, but he has certainly made the waters more manageable and enjoyable. Second, it is clear that Congdon has spent time with Bultmann and those within his immediate circle. Congdon’s ability to synthesize and explain the development and deployment of various Bultmannian themes to the beginning student is both astounding and uncommon. Third, while reading an introductory text such as this may result in greater familiarity with the figure or topic, only the naïve will assume there is no need for further investigation. Consequently, apart from a healthy bibliography, Congdon has provided a helpful “further reading” section to point the reader in the right direction.

It is hard to think of a more qualified individual than David W. Congdon to bring the reader into the thought and theology of one of Christendom’s most controversial biblical interpreters. Congdon has provided a provocative and engaging introductory volume that is certain to be enjoyed by both the familiar and soon-to-be familiar Bultmannian enthusiasts. In a moment of personal reflection, this is likely one of the most helpful books I have read all year. Bultmann is complex, but Congdon makes him approachable. If you are in the market for a short, well-written, and thoroughly distilled volume on one of the most important figures of the modern period, then Rudolf Bultmann: A Companion to His Theology should be at the top of your wishlist.

 

I received a review copy of these books in exchange for and honest review. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

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Review: A Theology of Mark’s Gospel

26263482David E. Garland needs no introduction. He is Dean and Holder of The Charles J. and Eleanor McLerran Delancey Chair of the Dean and Professor of Christian Scriptures at George W. Truett Seminary Baylor University. Garland is the author of numerous books and articles, including numerous highly acclaimed commentaries, and the New Testament editor of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary.  Most recently, Garland has produced this landmark volume on the theology of the Second Gospel as part of Zondervan’s Biblical Theology of the New Testament (BTNT) series.

A Theology of Mark’s Gospel: Good News about Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God is the fourth volume in the projected eight-volume BTNT series. Like the other volumes in the series, A Theology of Mark’s Gospel seeks to (1) survey recent scholarship and the state of research, (2) provide a treatment of relevant introductory issues, (3) present a thematic commentary that follows the overall flow of the narrative, (4) discuss important individual themes, and (5) interact with the relationship between the gospel of Mark and the rest of the New Testament and the Bible.

A Theology of Mark’s Gospel opens and Garland immediately orients the reader for the study ahead. Having written two successful commentaries on the Gospel of Mark already, Garland is well-positioned to survey the recent trends of Markan scholarship, and provides a helpful starting point and framework for the less familiar reader. Following the brief orientation, Garland carries the conversation forward and tackles traditional introductory issues such as authorship, provenance and date, audience, etc. Each of these topics are treated with judicious detail and thoroughly documented throughout.

After the introductory material is set as a foundation, Garland guides the reader through the Gospel of Mark and provides a literary reading of the narrative. Garland is extremely helpful here and shows that he is well-acquainted with the Second Gospel. The remainder of the volume seeks to address various theological themes and topics within the Gospel of Mark. The highpoints are numerous, but there are several that would suffice the purchase price of the volume alone. Three such examples would be Garland’s examination of the Christological titles, Mark’s eschatology, and a lengthy discussion on discipleship and missions.

I have been a fan of the BTNT series since the initial volume was released in 2009. Not only does the BTNT series bridge a much-needed gap on the bookshelf by providing a thorough investigation of a given book through the lenses of biblical theology, but the series is intentionally designed for easy reference and usability. It is within this marriage between scholarship and usability that Garland has provided the reader a volume that is sure to shine brightly in an ever-growing market of Markan material. Each topic is well-documented and discussed, the chapters open with a thoroughly distilled bibliography, and everything addressed in the volume is easily discoverable within the detailed table of contents.

 A Theology of Mark’s Gospel: Good News about Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God by David E. Garland offers the reader and up-to-date and in-depth discussion of the Second Gospel. From the introductory orientation to the detailed dialogue of the disputed passages at the close of the Gospel, and the various theological themes in between, Garland has provided a superb volume that is sure to be received with open arms by many. While it would be difficult to pick a favorite volume from within the BTNT series, if pressed, Garland would be at the top of the list. It will be off my bookshelf with much frequency.

 

I received a review copy of these books in exchange for and honest review. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Review: A Biblical History of Israel

A-Biblical-History-of-Israel-Second-EditionA Biblical History of Israel by Iain Provan, V. Philips Long, and Tremper Longman III has been a useful and well-respected textbook for over a decade. It has been received with both praise and criticism for its unapologetic approach in the reconstruction of Israel by scholars and students alike, but the former has always seemed outweighed the latter. Now, significantly revised and updated, this second edition of A Biblical History of Israel proves to be more refined and useful than ever.

If the reader is familiar with the previous edition of the book, the content, and organization of this second edition is largely the same as before. In part one, the authors provide a helpful review of the various scholarly approaches to the historiography of ancient Israel and argue against the minimalist consensus that seeks to negate the use of the Bible as a primary source for such task. This section constructs a needed framework for the conversation and provides the reader with a useful introduction to the issues surrounding historiography and ancient Israel.

In part two, the authors shape a history of ancient Israel from the time of Abraham to the Persian Period (2000 to 400 BCE) by integrating biblical sources, extrabiblical sources, and a number of relevant archaeological discoveries. In regards to the latter, the second edition has been thoroughly updated to concur with the most recent archaeological data and discoveries over the past decade, as well as new references have been added and updated. This section has and continues to be a helpful reference for the reader. It is well-documented throughout, clearly stated, convincingly argued, and judiciously presented.

Additionally, in this second edition of the book, the authors have intentionally sought to address a large array of criticism against the effort of the first edition. This interaction is witnessed throughout the book and makes for a more engaging read that is certain be enjoyed by readers of all persuasions. The authors have also included a designated appendix that is aimed more specifically at the criticism against the first edition, and the attentive reader is sure to find this level of interaction helpful. In total, there is approximately 60 pages of additional material, as well as the inclusion of a number of maps and charts for the reader’s use.

A Biblical History of Israel has been a useful and respected resource since first being published in 2003. This second edition has been clearly built upon a solid foundation. As expected, much of the content and organization that made the first edition successful has remained, but with this second edition, the reader has been provided a thoroughly revised, updated, and refined engagement with issues related to the history of ancient Israel. Add the intentional effort of the authors to interact with the criticism of the first edition and you have a recipe for a must-have and up-to-date volume for biblical studies enthusiasts everywhere.

 

I received a review copy of these books in exchange for and honest review. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Review: John: A Commentary

John-2015Marianne Meye Thompson (PhD, Duke University) is George Eldon Ladd Professor of New Testament at Fuller Theological Seminary’s School of Theology where she has been on the faculty for over three decades. Thompson is the author of several books, including, 1–3 John (IVP New Testament Commentary, InterVarsity Press, 2011), A Commentary on Colossians and Philemon (The Two Horizons Commentary, Eerdmans, 2005), The God of the Gospel of John (Eerdmans, 2001), The Promise of the Father (Westminster John Knox, 2000), and co-author of Introducing the New Testament (Eerdmans, 2001). She has also published numerous articles and reviews in scholarly journals with specific emphasis on Johannine literature. Most recently, Thompson released her much-anticipated commentary on the Fourth Gospel in the highly acclaimed New Testament Library series.

John: A Commentary begins with a substantial bibliography of up-to-date commentaries, monographs, and essays related to the Gospel of John. At 24 pages, a quick glance of the bibliography displays a well-researched commentary, and the content therein embodies the reality of this information well. Still, Thompson is clear that her efforts are not primarily about interaction with the scholarship of the Fourth Gospel. Instead, she seeks to present an understanding of the text within a narrative framework, as she traces and explores the holistic understanding of the ministry and significance of Jesus Christ in the Gospel of John. This unique approach to the Gospel of John makes this commentary both accessible and useful to the specialist and nonspecialist alike. Thompson has effectively guided the reader through the depths of the narrative without losing sight of the cultural context and scholarly concerns required for a top-tier commentary in a growing market.

The introduction to the commentary is filled with helpful information for the trained and untrained reader. Some readers will likely just skim over this section or skip it altogether. However, this approach is not recommended. Thompson has an excellent and stimulating discussion on the relation of the Gospel of John and the Synoptic Gospels. For Thompson, the Fourth Gospel is to be understood as an ancient historical biography, and thus the author maintains the complete liberty to expand and correct the material for his purpose (p. 8). Consequently, Thompson acknowledges that John did not intend to write a history about Jesus that would be “understood by all,” but rather understood by John (p. 13). This is thought, according to Thompson, to explain the divergence of the Fourth Gospel from Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Thompson’s arguments are convincing, but the reader will need to be the judge of such claims.

Thompson has done excellent work illuminating John’s understanding of Jesus, but there are a few likely concerns the reader will encounter. For the sake of space here, I will list only two. First, despite the almost universal internal and external attestation of Johannine authorship being attributed to John, the son of Zebedee, Thompson views the traditional understanding of the authorship of the Gospel as unlikely. Her reasons are explained and the case is well made, but she still doesn’t give a clear answer to the question of authorship. Second, the reader may be stunned to see some of the textual decisions that Thompson makes in her translation of the Gospel. For example, Thompson finds “the only son (huios)” to be the most natural reading of John 1:18. This reading is certainly possible, but the most difficult reading of “the only God (theos)” has both early and important attestation. In fact, it is almost universally understood that theos is the correct reading of the text, and huios was the result of later scribal assimilation to other passages in the Gospel (John 3:16, 18).

John: A Commentary by Marianne Meye Thompson is an up-to-date commentary on one of the most important and influential biblical books in the New Testament. Thompson approaches the author of the Gospel on his terms and guides the reader through the depths of the narrative. The reader will find Thompson’s reading of the text fresh and inviting. The introduction is a worthy starting point for readers of all background and expertise. Her exegesis is sometimes prematurely saturated with theological bias, sometimes making theological statements about the text that directly oppose even a mere reading of the text itself (e.g. John 6:44). Her textual decisions are also sometimes interesting, but the reader should find her conversation on such decisions as an added benefit to their library. Nonetheless, despite the pros and cons, this is a much-anticipated commentary by a seasoned and experienced Johannine scholar. It is true that in some cases the anticipation has outshined the publication, but this is certainly not one of those cases. If you are looking for an up-to-date commentary on the Gospel of John, this volume by Marianne Meye Thompson should be at the top of your wishlist.

 

I received a review copy of these books in exchange for and honest review. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

Review: Theology as Discipleship

9780830840342Keith L. Johnson is Associate Professor of Theology at Wheaton College. Johnson has an M.Div. from Baylor University, a Th.M. from Duke Divinity School, and a Ph.D. from Princeton Theological Seminary. Johnson has authored or co-authored a number of books, including Karl Barth and the Analogia Entis (T&T Clark, 2010), and published numerous articles related to various theological topics. Most recently, Johnson has published this timely and important volume, Theology as Discipleship (IVP Academic, 2015), that seeks to build a bridge between the study of theology and the Christian life.

Theology as Discipleship argues, “that the discipline of theology and a life of discipleship to Jesus Christ are integrally related because the practice of theology is one of the ways we participate in the life of the triune God” (p. 12) The goal of Theology as Discipleship is to show how the study of theology actually enriches the Christian life and how faithful obedience to Christ rightly enables the learning of theology. Thus, it is a reciprocal relationship that functions best when both aspects are equally involved.

Johnson rightly recognizes the contemporary dilemma that characterizes most Christians today. For Johnson, the study of theology has become so divorced from the everyday endeavors of the Christian life that it has become difficult, even for intelligently committed Christians, to figure out how the two relate. Accordingly, Theology as Discipleship opens with an important chapter that helps the reader identify what went wrong and how it can be effectively reconstructed. It is this reconstruction process that dominates the following chapters of the book.

As an educator in the context of the local church, I understand that the problem that Johnson seeks to address in Theology as Discipleship is more prevalent than many are willing to admit. In fact, I actually just taught a six-week course that aimed to address the very issue raised by Johnson here, and I wish I had his book prior to that endeavor for a number of reasons. First, Johnson is consistently Christ-centered in his approach and application. Second, his approach does more than provide a hypothetical solution to the problem. Third, his approach and solution are beneficial to both scholars and students.

Theology as Discipleship concludes, appropriately so, with nine characteristics that distinguish the life of the Christian who practices theology faithfully within the context of God’s saving work in Christ and the Spirit (p. 156). For example, Johnson rightly argues, we practice theology as disciples, “when our thinking stays within the limits of our faith in Jesus Christ” (p. 158), and, “when we pursue both truth and unity” (p. 176). This last chapter practically and carefully shows the necessity of theology for the Christian life, and why as Christians we should be quick to engage frequently in theological dialog and thinking.

It is difficult to correctly articulate the importance of Theology as Discipleship by Keith L, Johnson. Not only is the book well-written and engaging, but the content is challenging and intentionally aimed. In fact, to say that this book is necessary for the contemporary church would run the risk of being an understatement. Johnson has produced a timely and important volume that exemplifies a personal pursuit of faithfulness in the discipline of theology. If you are a Christian educator, pastor, or simply a Christian seeking to live faithfully in all aspects of your life, Theology as Discipleship is a must read book—sooner than later.

 

I received a review copy of these books in exchange for and honest review. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Review: An Invitation to Analytic Christian Theology

9780830840953Thomas H. McCall is Professor of Biblical and Systematic Theology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, and the Director of the Carl F. H. Henry Center for Theological Understanding. McCall has a MA in Theology from Wesley Biblical Seminary, and received a PhD in Systematic Theology from Calvin Theological Seminary. McCall is the author of a number of important books related to the disciplines of theology and philosophy, including, Which Trinity? Whose Monotheism? Philosophical and Systematic Theologians on the Metaphysics of Trinitarian Theology (Eerdmans, 2010), Jacob Arminius: Theologian of Grace (with Keith D. Stanglin; Oxford, 2012), Forsaken: The Trinity and the Cross, and Why It Matters (InterVarsity Press, 2012), and most recently, An Invitation to Analytic Christian Theology (InterVarsity Press, 2015).

An Invitation to Analytic Christian Theology is a well-timed introduction to a growing and engaging movement within contemporary theological circles. At the expense of providing an oversimplified definition of a budding and variegated discipline, analytic theology is, in many ways, simply the intersection between theology and analytic philosophy. As McCall explains, “analytic theology signifies a commitment to employ the conceptual tools of analytic philosophy where those tools might be helpful in the work of constructive Christian theology” (p. 16). The book opens with an appropriate question for most readers: What Is Analytic Theology? McCall positions the question in context and brings clarity where clarity is needed. As the book unfolds, McCall appears to be intentionally sensitive to the reluctance of some to receive the theological approach offered by analytic theology, and thus, builds a sturdy framework for embracing such as helpful and complementary to other traditional theological approaches.

I have to admit, when I first receive this book from the publisher, I found myself scratching my head asking, “what is analytic theology?” In other words, An Invitation to Analytic Christian Theology was quite literally an invitation to analytic Christian theology. I had no prior exposure to the discipline or approach. With that said, I found McCall’s treatment of the subject to be a well-written and appropriately curated introduction. Moreover, the sensitivity to the reader that McCall exhibits, specifically in relation to grounding analytic theology in Scripture and Christian tradition, helpfully guides the reader to and immediate and practical benefit. As McCall rightly concludes, “analytic theology . . . needs to be theology; it needs to be grounded in Scripture, informed by the Christian tradition and alert to its ecclesial and cultural contexts” (p. 178). An Invitation to Analytic Christian Theology was not only a helpful and inviting introduction to an unknown field of study, McCall was judicious and charitable in the process.

It’s not often that one is able to enter into a complex discussion for the first time and leave with a level of competency, understanding of purpose, and vision. It takes a gifted communicator with a particular set of interests to make this happen. Thomas H. McCall is one of those communicators. An Invitation to Analytic Christian Theology is a well-equipped introductory textbook firmly grounded and intentionally positioned in all the right places. McCall has provided the Church and academy a theological treasure that is certain to influence many theologically minded and philosophically sensitive thinkers. If you have been looking for a point of entry onto the growing intellectual highway known as analytic theology, then you should look no further. This volume comes highly recommended.

 

I received a review copy of these books in exchange for and honest review. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Review: The Uncontrolling Love of God

9780830840847.jpgThe Uncontrolling Love of God: An Open and Relational Account of Providence by Thomas Jay Oord (PhD., Claremont) is an attempt to propagate a logical explanation for randomness and evil in light of divine providence. The Uncontrolling Love of God seeks to wrestle with two weighty and important questions: (1) if a loving and powerful God exists, why doesn’t this God prevent genuinely evil events?, and (2) how can a loving and powerful God be providential if random and chance events occur? (p. 16). Oord finds the traditional answers to these questions largely unsatisfying and assumes that most Christians do as well. The Uncontrolling Love of God attempts to offer the reader an alternative explanation found within open and relational theology.

Oord begins his investigation by emotionally framing the discussion around four seemingly random and evil current events. It is here that Oord effectively brings the reader into the wrestle of his heart as he seeks to struggle with such questions openly and honestly. However, it also appears as though Oord is attempting to undercut the confidence of the reader in the traditional ways such situations and questions have been addressed. It’s an effective and commonly used tactic for getting the run-of-the-mill reader oriented to receive his proposal with open arms, but largely unhelpful for the learned reader who is familiar with the debate and is simply seeking to evaluate his arguments.

Because the traditional understanding of providence has been abandoned as unsettled in his evaluation of the world, for Oord, the explanation of tragedy and calamity is first to be understood as dependent upon the existence of randomness and chance. Unfortunately, Oord seeks to build a case for the existence of randomness and chance primarily through philosophical and scientific evaluation, rather than an evaluation of the Scriptures (p. 28). This is unfortunate because the questions that Oord seeks to answer are primarily theological in nature, and thus an appropriate understanding of such must be yielded from a proper understanding of the Scriptures. Oord begins from the wrong start point and his conclusion appears to be previously decided rather than discovered. Surprisingly, no meaningful interaction with the biblical text is found to substantiate the assumption of the actuality of randomness. In fact, Oord actually concludes, “If dominant views in science and philosophy are correct in their affirmation of randomness and chance, theologians . . . are wrong” (p. 41).

Still, Oord rightly recognizes that if he is going to succeed in his projected remedy to the proposed problem, he is going to need to establish more than the existence of chance. As expected, Oord seeks to further found his case in the autonomy of the will of man—specifically libertarian freewill. Still, similar to the previous section, Oord does better at presupposing his conclusion than establishing it within the biblical text. In fact, a biblical case for libertarian freewill isn’t even attempted by Oord. This is a tragedy given the theological nature of his concerns. Unfortunately, philosophy and science continue to function as Oord’s support group, which wouldn’t be a bad thing if the concern of his questions didn’t require a theological starting point. Furthermore, the attentive reader is likely to wonder if libertarian freewill, as Oord suggests, really allows him to escape the difficulties of the mess that he is so desperately running away from in the first place—especially if libertarian freewill is simply a theoretical scapegoat lacking any substantial biblical support.

When it comes to the specific concerns of divine providence, Oord argues for a position he coined Essential Kenosis. According to Oord, God is involuntarily self-limited because his nature of love logically precedes any inclination of his sovereign will (p. 94-95). Oord appears to understand the role and actuality of divine providence through the lenses of three tenants: (1) God is relational, (2) the future is open, and (3) love matters most (p. 107). Of course, when it comes to establishing the reality of these three tenants, the interaction with the biblical text is minimal at best, and persuasive exegetical argumentation is completely absent. For example, after briefly discussing 2 Chronicles 7:14-20, Oord states simply, “God is not sure which action will be taken until creatures respond” (p. 110). This would have been an appropriate place for Oord to establish his case with persuasive exegesis of the text, but the reader gets a mere assertion of a presupposed conclusion.

For Oord, open and relational theology functions as his movable framework for wrestling with life’s biggest questions and Essential Kenosis becomes the unique outpouring of that intentional thought. A number of important observations can be gleaned (more than room permits here) as the reader analyzes Oord’s thought—specifically in chapter seven, The Essential Kenosis Model of Providence. For example, for Essential Kenosis to work, Oord is required to hierarchically reorder the nature of love and God’s sovereign will. Oord views divine love as absolute and foremost to the person of God, and as his primary attribute, love has limited God and constrained him from overthrowing the autonomous will of man. In other words, for Oord, any overthrowing of the will of man would be contrary to the nature of God’s love in giving them such, and thus genuinely evil events occur not because God didn’t want to stop them or couldn’t stop them, but rather because God’s love makes it impossible to thwart the will of man. Still, despite its importance to the overall thrust of Oord’s argument, the attentive reader will at this point remain wondering how it is possible to attribute a hierarchical order to the attributes of God apart from philosophical reasoning.

The Uncontrolling Love of God: An Open and Relational Account of Providence by Thomas Jay Oord is a stimulating attempt to wrestle with some of the most difficult questions that life brings our way. Oord is moved by a sense of dissatisfaction in the responses that are traditionally found anchored in the person and work of a sovereign God. Unfortunately, Oord seems to be moved more by experience and observation than a grounded understanding of the person of God revealed in Scripture, and his methodology proves such over and over again. This is unfortunate because the questions that Oord seeks to answer are primarily theological and first require an answer from the source of theology—the Scriptures—before looking to philosophy and science. Oord is an excellent and engaging writer, and The Uncontrolling Love of God exemplifies this well. Still, despite the unsatisfied tenor that sparked the exploration of this book, many readers will assuredly and ironically walk away unsatisfied, or at least unconvinced that Oord has solved anything.

 

I received a review copy of these books in exchange for and honest review. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.