Author: John Kight

Review: Echoes of Exodus

36899328.jpgBryan D. Estelle is Professor of Old Testament at Westminster Seminary California. He has an M.Div. from Westminster Seminary California and both an M.A. and Ph.D. from The Catholic University of America. Estelle has written essays and articles in various publications, as well as Salvation Through Judgement and Mercy: The Gospel According to Jonah (P & R Publishing, 2005). Most recently, Estelle has written a biblical-theological exploration on the Exodus motif that proves to be a timely look into one of Scriptures richest themes.

Echoes of Exodus: Tracing a Biblical Motif opens with an introductory chapter that orients the reader to the thematic presence of exodus throughout the Old Testament and into the New. The exodus motif more than the story of liberation from Egyptian oppression, according to Estelle. It is an all-encompassing motif about “God’s crafting a people for himself by bringing them to the very abode of his presence at Mount Sinai. Yet there is more . . . The deliverance from Egypt did not stop at Sinai, where God meets with his people. The deliverance was intended to include the Promise Land” (p. 3). That is, the Promise Land in both an immediate and eschatological sense. It is here that Estelle embarks on a biblical-theological voyage through the contours of the Old and New Testaments.

Before exploring the canonical landscape, Estelle spends a great deal of time establishing the hermeneutical foundations for his analysis of the exodus motif—a methodological establishment built upon the interpretive approach embodied by John Calvin and Campegius Vitringa. Estelle then moves the reader to Genesis, Exodus, the Psalms, Isaiah, and the Exilic and Post-Exilic Era. Estelle creates a visible awareness of the exodus motif in the Old Testament before turning the attention towards the New. The concluding five chapters explore the Jesus and the New Exodus in Mark and Matthew, Luke-Acts, Paul, 1 Peter, and Revelation. The salvific emphasis of this book demonstrates that “discussing the whole complex salvation is necessary if we are to fairly present God’s plan of redemption” (p. 323). The big-picture is an imperative element and Estelle provides a masterful framework for such discussion.

Echoes of Exodus is a wellspring of exegetical and biblical-theological riches. The sheer scope of Estelle’s engagement is extraordinary. Two examples of such engagement are noteworthy, and worth mention here. First, Estelle’s keen demonstration and utilized presence of intertextuality is a masterful representation of biblical theology. Estelle knows the rich history of biblical theology in the Reformed tradition and he exemplifies such with excellence. Moreover, Estelle’s unusual awareness of the sometimes-peripheral nature of the exodus motif affords readers the ability to more easily uncover the scarlet thread of God’s redemptive plan. Second, while the caliber of conversation occasionally presupposes a level of understanding that may be foreign to readers lacking a seminary education, Estelle is a gifted communicator and a skilled writer. Echoes of Exodus is easy to read and engaging on almost every page.

Echoes of Exodus: Tracing a Biblical Motif by Bryan D. Estelle demonstrates mature reflection and keen awareness on one of the richest biblical-theological themes of the Christian Scriptures. Estelle is insightful and easy to read, and the scope of his exploration has provided a fascinating demonstration of how to properly embody a biblical-theological mindset when approaching the Bible. If you’re interested in biblical theology and you’re looking for a book that will trace the heartbeat of God from Genesis to Revelation, then Estelle’s Echoes of Exodus is a worthwhile purchase. Trust me. It will be difficult to put down!


Review: The Decalogue: Living as the People of God

32284354David L. Baker is a lecturer in biblical studies at All Nations Christian College in Hertfordshire, England. Baker received a PhD from the University of Sheffield and is the author of Tight Fists or Open Hands?: Wealth and Poverty in Old Testament (Eerdmans, 2009) and Two Testaments, One Bible: The Theological Relationship between the Old and New Testaments (IVP Academic, 3rd edition, 2010). Most recently, Baker has written an academically refreshing and practically engaging exploration into the life-giving nature of the Ten Commandments.

The Decalogue: Living as the People of God is divided into four major sections: (1) What Is the Decalogue?, (2) Loving God, (3) Loving Neighbor, and (4) The Decalogue Today. In the initial section, Baker orients to the reader towards the ancient and contemporary conversation regarding the shape, form, origin, and purpose of the Ten Commandments. This section offers the reader an appropriate introduction to the Decalogue, and Baker’s mindfulness of the ancient Near Eastern world brings a contextual perspective not found in other works of similar size and scope. After an overview of the details of the Decalogue, Baker divides his discussion of the commandments into two main parts: Loving God and Loving Neighbor. The former explores commandments 1-5 and the latter explores commandments 6-10. Baker concludes the volume with a practical chapter which points the reader towards the life-giving nature of the Decalogue.

There is much to be appreciated about The Decalogue: Living as the People of God. First, Baker is uniquely qualified to bring fresh life to the Ten Commandments. Baker possesses a noticeable familiarity the Old Testament, the ancient Near East, and the contemporary scholarly literature at the forefront of both. Second, the organization of each chapter on the Commandments allows the reader to (1) understand ancient Near Eastern law and culture, (2) resolve the canonical context of each commandment as it relates to the rest of the biblical corpus, and (3) reflect upon the contemporary significance of the commandment for the world today. This methodology is both unique and beneficial. Third, Baker converses with a wide array of commentators and scholars on the Ten Commandments, and the use of footnotes provides readers with a goldmine of riches. An example of Baker’s academic awareness of the literature on the subject can be found in the 38-page bibliography! Lastly, Baker is an excellent writer and a clear communicator. This book is engaging from beginning to end, and Baker is to be commended for his work in making such possible. He really does begin to bring the blessing and joy of the Law of Moses to life for the contemporary audience.

The Decalogue: Living as the People of God by David L. Baker is simply outstanding. It is easily the best book on the Ten Commandments published in the past three decades. Baker is aware of each major facet of study needed to accomplish a meaningful exploration of the Decalogue, and he shows himself capable of bringing fresh insight over and over again. For anyone studying the Ten Commandments or Old Testament ethics, this book will prove itself to be indispensable. It comes highly recommended!

Review: Old Testament Ethics for the People of God

1413493Christopher J. H. Wright is International Ministries Director of the Langham Partnership, which provides literature, scholarships, and homiletical training for pastors in Majority World churches and seminaries. Wright received a PhD from the University of Cambridge and is internationally recognized as one of the most influential Old Testament scholars today. Wright is a committed Anglican clergyman and the author of several books, including The Mission of God: Unlocking the Bible’s Grand Narrative, Salvation Belongs to Our God: Celebrating the Bible’s Central Story, and The Mission of God’s People: A Biblical Theology of the Church’s Mission.

Old Testament Ethics for the People of God is the distilled reflection of several decades. Wright has comprehensively revised, updated and expanded his previous work An Eye for an Eye: The Place of Old Testament Ethics Today and included additional material from Walking in the Ways of the Lord: The Ethical Authority of the Old Testament. For Wright, the Old Testament occupies meaningful space in the Christian life for the purposes of informing ethical engagement, and Old Testament Ethics for the People of God demonstrates an innovative approach that examines a theological, social and economic framework for Old Testament ethics.    

Old Testament Ethics for the People of God is comprised of three major parts: (1) A Structure for Old Testament Ethics, (2) Themes in Old Testament Ethics, and (3) Studying Old Testament Ethics. In Part One, Wright explores three distinct angles for approaching Old Testament ethics, including theological (“the LORD, as the God of Israel”), social (“Israel themselves as an elect people in unique relation to the LORD”), and economical (“the land of believed the LORD had promised and given to them” [p. 19]). The three chapters in Part One are absolutely foundation for the exploration that follows in Part Two, and readers will do well to spend as much time as needed here before moving into the heart of the book. In Part Two, the foundational structure of Part One is applied to various ethically related themes in the Old Testament. As the heartbeat of the book, Part Two is where most readers will spend their time excavating the riches that Wright has presented. In Part Three, Wright concludes the volume with a historical survey of approaches to Old Testament ethics, a chapter on contemporary scholarship, and a crucial chapter on the hermeneutical implications of the Old Testament as authoritative Scripture for the purpose of Christian ethics.

The strengths of Old Testament Ethics for the People of God are plenty and readers familiar with Wright’s work will anticipate much of the same. Where I found Old Testament Ethics for the People of God to shines is in Wright’s ability to demonstrate the useful, indeed the imperative nature of the Old Testament for developing a holistic vision of Christian ethics. Wright does a tremendous job upholding the relevance and authority of Old Testament as Christian Scripture and readers will appreciate the accessibility associated with the application therein. Not only will Wright’s audience begin to understand the Old Testament more faithfully, but they will begin to see how approachable it is for modern ethical conversations. The weaknesses of Old Testament Ethics for the People of God are few and far between. That said, I think that some readers may desire more than Wright offers at times. For example, there seems to be a looming question about the relevance of the Old Testament for ethical consideration due to the violent portraits caricatured therein. Wright does tackle these concerns throughout the volume in brief and offers an appendix concerning the Canaanites, but the question may still seem to loom over the content of the book. I think Wright made a good decision not to comment more on this particular issue, as it has been and is better addressed in a separate treatment with more dedicated space to the peripheral issues.

Old Testament Ethics for the People of God by Christopher J. H. Wright is one of the most rewarding and well-written books on the subject. Wright offers fresh insight in an illuminating fashion, and readers will reap the rewards of his labor on every page. For those interested in the Old Testament and its relevance to the Christian life, you will not find a more comprehensive and engaging book on the market. Its pages are rich with exegetical and theological treasure!

Review: The Majesty of Mystery

Screen Shot 2018-02-27 at 8.41.11 PMK. Scott Oliphint is Dean of Faculty and Professor of Apologetics and Systematic Theology at Westminster Theological Seminary (WTS) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Oliphint is an ordained minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and holds a PhD from WTS. Oliphint is a leading voice of Reformed apologetics and the author of numerous publications, including Christianity and the Role of Philosophy (P&R, 2013) and Covenantal Apologetics (Crossway, 2013). Most recently, Oliphint released a fascinating exploration into some of the most shadowy corners of the Christian doctrine of God in hopes of encouraging a celebratory response to the glory of his incomprehensibleness.

The Majesty of Mystery: Celebrating the Glory of an Incomprehensible God is comprised of nine chapters that address questions pertaining to the trinity of God, the incarnation of God in Jesus, the relationship of between God and his people, the providence of God and human choices, etc. The book is written with the layperson in mind, and thus should be easily accessible for most to enjoy. Oliphint is convinced that “nothing should motivate true Christian worship more than the majestic mystery of God” (p. 4). It is here that readers get a glimpse into the tone and purpose of the book, and Oliphint does well to bring the readers back to this point over and over again. As Oliphint summarizes, “These are questions that recognize some of the mysterious tensions that Scripture presents to us. They are good questions, but wrong answers to good questions can rob us of a full, and fulfilled, Christian life, and they rob God of His proper glory. Proper answers—answers that allow the mystery of God and His ways to shine brightly—will evoke in us proper worship, preparing us for an eternity of worship with Him, in which, because of the majestic mystery of God’s triune character, we will be ‘lost in wonder, love, and praise’” (p. 14-15).

The strengths The Majesty of Mystery are numerous. First, and probably foremost, Oliphint is a brilliant thinker and a capable communicator. The level of conversation generally exhausted for the topics addressed in this book tend to land outside the realm of the target audience. Oliphint has distilled and packaged an enormous amount of rich theological consideration into a rather small and approachable volume. Second, the tone, as Oliphint has set out from beginning to end, wonderfully complements the material therein. It allows the reader to move beyond the theoretical and into the throne room of God. Third, the scope of the volume is calculated and appropriately organized for a work of this nature. It is clear that Oliphint spent considerable time pondering the most relevant topics that exhibit tension, and the result allows readers to admire the mystery of God while ushering them towards practical means of worship. Much more could be said about the above, but these three, alone warrant acknowledgment here.

The Majesty of Mystery: Celebrating the Glory of an Incomprehensible God by K. Scott Oliphint is a wonderful demonstration of how to move beyond theological tension to a formed doxology that stands in awe of the incomprehensibleness of God. Oliphint is clear that his treatment does not attempt to explain “exactly how these mysteries work, or even how they can be!” (p. 207). Still, it is clear, as Oliphint acknowledges, “that they are the sum and substance of our Christian lives and experience” (p. 207). Thus, rather than seek to reconcile the irreconcilable, Oliphint encourages us not simply to ignore or run away from such tensions, but to worship through them as we seek to know and love God more faithfully.

Available in Print and Logos Bible Software

Review: Exodus (Evangelical Exegetical Commentary)

Screen Shot 2018-02-27 at 8.18.53 PMEugene Carpenter was Professor of Old Testament, Hebrew, and Biblical Theology at Bethel College. He authored commentaries on Daniel and Exodus, as well as Deuteronomy in the New Illustrated Bible Background Commentary. Carpenter has also written translations for both Exodus and Numbers. Before his untimely and accidental death in 2012, Carpenter completed his magnum opus on the Book of Exodus—a mammoth exploration that took nearly two decades to complete.

The Evangelical Exegetical Commentary series (EEC) is becoming notoriously known for its consistent academic rigor and practical care. Each volume in the series presents content packed with insight and application and is bound together by a historic affirmation of orthodox Christianity and the inerrancy of the Holy Scriptures (xi). Carpenter’s volume on the Book of Exodus accomplishes this reality with excellence and provides the reader with a wealth of understanding and insight.

Carpenter begins the commentary with a well-informed monster of an introduction (61 pages). It’s here that groundwork is established, and the introductory matters are investigated. I really appreciated Carpenter’s focus on the theological and practical emphasis of the book. It was a refreshing and holistic overview of the importance of Exodus, and one, in my opinion, deemed necessary before entering into some of the minute details of verbal forms and textual disputes.

As the reader enters into the commentary proper, each major unit of the commentary is addressed with a brief introduction, which is then followed by smaller and more detailed discussions around the specific units of text. It is here that the reader will discover the supreme worth of Carpenter’s work. Each section contains the original text, textual notes, Carpenter’s translation, verse-by-verse commentary, biblical theology comments, application and devotional implications, and a selected bibliography.

Carpenter has also included a number of helpful excurses articles on various related topics, such as, the historical Moses, the date of the exodus, and more. The reader will discover the excurses material to be appropriately placed. That is, the articles are more than page supplements to the overall commentary; rather they strategically provide detail around some of the more difficult issues within the Exodus conversation—issues that would not fit within the introduction or commentary proper. Carpenter concludes the volume with an exhaustive 40-page bibliography and a Scripture index.

Carpenter is unashamedly conservative in his overall approach to the Book of Exodus. This is praiseworthy for those that stand firmly within that theological circle. However, for those less theologically conservative, some of the statements and conclusions reached by Carpenter will be unwelcomed (e.g. authorship and date). This doesn’t mean that Carpenter sidesteps these critical issues, rather his presupposition therein is guided by his belief in biblical inerrancy. I personally found much of Carpenters interaction helpful and his arguments persuasively presented.

Exodus: Evangelical Exegetical Commentary by Eugene Carpenter represents the best evangelical scholarship on the Old Testament available today. Carpenter is academically lucid and pastorally sensitive. Exodus is a watershed moment in evangelical scholarship. From the organization of the volume to the riches of its content, it is hard to imagine a commentary more useful for studying a book more central to the biblical narrative than this. It comes highly recommended!

Available in Print (Volume 1 & Volume 2) and Logos Bible Software.

Review: The Messianic Hope: Is the Hebrew Bible Really Messianic?

8218468Michael Rydelnik is Professor of Jewish Studies in the Intercultural Studies Department at Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, Illinois. He has a Th.M. from Dallas Theological Seminary and a DMiss from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. Rydelnik was an OT Translator for The Holman Christian Standard Bible, a contributor to The Moody Bible Commentary and various Study Bibles, and the author of the present volume The Messianic Hope: Is the Hebrew Bible Really Messianic? (B&H Academic, 2010).

The Messianic Hope opens with a helpful introduction to orient the readers to the study of messianic prophecy in the OT. Rydelnik does well in the initial chapters to define key terms and delineate the shift away from a messianic interpretation of the OT. For Rydelnik, there appears to be a growing chasm of conviction between those that view messianic prophecy as explicitly predictive and those that view it as merely an ultimate end that points towards the Messiah. This is an appropriate foundation and Rydelnik does an admirable job interacting with recent scholarship.

Following the initial chapters, Rydelnik directs the reader’s attention towards various perspectives on messianic prophecy. While all the chapters are meaningful and important for the holistic portrait that Rydelnik paints, two chapters are particularly significant to the thesis of the book. First, the chapter on the innerbiblical perspectives on messianic prophecy offers readers a glimpse into how the OT interprets and understands itself, but especially messianic passages. Second, the chapter on the NT perspectives on messianic prophecy offers a similar window into the OT messianic passages but from a NT vantage point, including Jesus’ own understanding of messianic passages.

Beyond the establishment of the major thrust of his argument concerning messianic prophecy, Rydelnik offers the reader three examples from the three major divisions of the Hebrew Bible—Law (Gen. 3:15), Prophets (Isa. 7:14), and Writings (Ps. 110). These examples help the reader to observe the method and consistency of Rydelnik’s approach. I found the examples particularly helpful to bring together the bits of Rydelnik’s study that weren’t as clear early on in the book. Where Rydelnik shines is his keen ability to uncover the interpretive nuances of messianic prophecy. Where I would have liked to see Rydelnik do a bit more exploration is in the arena of reception history. Nevertheless, Rydelnik has provided a goldmine of interpretive and biblical-theological treasure.

The Messianic Hope: Is the Hebrew Bible Really Messianic? By Michael Rydelnik is an outstanding push against a growing interpretive trend. Rydelnik is consistently kind and courteous in his interactions with his opponents. But, more than that, he is readable and aware of his target audience. If you’re looking for a book that will encourage your heart towards an appreciation of the forward-pointing nature of the OT, then Rydelnik will be indispensable. It comes highly recommended with little reservation despite some interpretive disagreement.

Review: The Old Testament in Archaeology and History

61xDBGUZeALThe Old Testament in Archaeology and History edited by Jennie Ebeling, J. Edward Wright, Mark Elliott, and Paul V. M. Flesher is a captivating collection of essays by an international team of specialists on matters OT history and archaeology. The contributors include Victor H. Matthews, K. L. Noll, Jill Baker, Ann E. Killebrew, William G. Dever, Richard S. Hess, and many more. Together these essays combine the most noteworthy archaeological findings of the past 150 years with modern historical and literary analysis of the Old Testament to recount the history of ancient Israel and its neighboring nations and empires. While a full review is certainly warranted, it is not possible in the limited space available here. Thus, the following will review the overarching landscape of the book and comment on some of the important contributions that it makes for the target audience.

The Old Testament in Archaeology and History consist of five major sections: (1) Archaeology, the Bible, and Epigraphy: Discovery, Techniques, and Development, (2) Israel before Settling in the Land, (3) Israel Settles in the Land of Canaan, (4) The Kingdom of the People Israel, and (5) Judah as a Province. The initial chapters of the book aim to orient the reader towards the various aspects of the field archaeology, biblical studies related to the OT world, and the development of archaeological studies in the Middle East over the last two centuries. The following chapters aim to explore the history of ancient Israel through related archaeological insights in a chronological fashion from the Bronze Ages onward.

Sections 4 and 5 are more neatly presented than sections 2 and 3 due to the nature of the material being discussed. The former addresses “the People of Israel in the land of Israel, beginning with David’s creation of the Israelite kingdom and continuing to its split into two smaller countries and then to their destruction and the exile of their inhabitants, followed by the return of some exiles and their re-establishment of the Israelite community in the land” (p. 8). This section is by far more historically established, albeit considerable debate exists among scholars, and the essays prove to be equally grounded and beneficial to the aim of the book. The latter section concerns a period of Israelite history that is less established but equally as interesting, and 7 chapters in this section prove to be influential to the book’s academic value from an archaeological and historical perspective.

Ebeling, Wright, Elliott, and Flesher have intentionally sought to ensure that The Old Testament in Archaeology and History functions as an introductory textbook. Readers of all backgrounds and interest levels will appreciate the tone and care taken by the contributors and editors to make sure the information therein is both useful and appropriately positioned. This is a massive benefit of a volume of this caliber and a huge advantage for professors looking to integrate this textbook into the classroom. The footnotes are keet at a minimum and citations generally utilize parenthetical documentation with the works appearing in the bibliography in the back of the book. Depending on one’s love for footnotes, this aspect of the book could be a shortcoming in disguise. Overall, I appreciated the chronological organization of the chapters. In my opinion, the organization was useful in observing how the archaeological and historical data intersected and cooperated as the author construct a particular portrait of Israel. Lastly, most chapters include maps and images to connect the content to illustrations, as well as highlighted terms that appear in the glossary. This allows the reader points of connection and useful reference for further study or future use.

The Old Testament in Archaeology and History edited by Jennie Ebeling, J. Edward Wright, Mark Elliott, and Paul V. M. Flesher is both ambitious all the right ways. The sheer scope of the volume offers readers a more than adequate portrait of ancient Israel within the OT world. The shortcomings of this volume should not be a surprise to most readers (i.e. inconsistency between the contributors and a variegated commitment among contributors to the core convictions of conservative Christianity concerning the OT). That said the usefulness of this volume should far outshine the minimal complaints found therein. In fact, don’t be surprised if you see it shows up on a syllabus near you this fall semester. It comes highly recommend for anyone interested in the OT studies, archaeology related to ancient Israel, or anything related OT history in general.